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已有 71 次阅读2018-11-27 12:06 |系统分类:热点杂谈 | 宽屏 请点击显示宽屏,再点击恢复窄屏 | 动漫全图 如只见部分动漫,请点击显示全图,再点击恢复窄图

A Summary of the Documentary Video ”Overview of America”

 updated December 20, 2011

An image from the video documentary
An image from the video documentary 'Overview of America.'

This video describes aspects of the major types of governmental and economic systems which exist in the world, and explains why the system of a capitalistic constitutional republic as outlined in the United States Constitution is preferable to other types of systems.

This video had been produced by The John Birch Society. Also see the article A Summary of the Booklet ”Restoring the Rights of the States and the People”.

Overview of America— Part 1 of 2: A Firm Foundation

  view individual page  |   view in popup windowRunning Time: 15 minutes  

This video clip from the documentary video ”Overview of America” describes the major types of governmental systems which exist in the world today— being ”monarchy” meaning rule by one, ”oligarchy” meaning rule by a few, ”democracy” meaning rule by a majority, ”republic” meaning rule by law, and ”anarchy” meaning rule by none. The governmental system of the United States was designed to be a "republic" by the Framers of the Constitution, and it is explained why such a system is preferable to others.

Following are key points made in the video clip:

— When the Founding Fathers declared independence from the British, they stated that the rights of men are given to them by God— including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness— and that government should be instituted in order to secure those rights.
--- 当开国元勋宣布独立于英国时,他们表示上帝赋予他们人的权利 --- 包括生命,自由和追求幸福 --- 并且应该建立政府以确保这些权利。

— It is explained that the Founders designed the U.S. government to be a ”negative force” which leaves people alone with it’s sole function being to protect citizens from one another, foreign governments, and from the government itself— and it was not designed to be a ”positive force” which does things for people, or takes from one person to give to another which in the process gives the government control over both people.
--- 据解释,创始人将美国政府设计为一种“消极力量”,与人分离开来,其唯一的功能是保护公民不受他人,外国政府和本国政府本身的侵犯。 --- 它没有被设计为 一种“积极的力量”,去为人们做事,或从一个人拿出什么分配给另一个人;在这个过程中,这种力量将让政府同时控制了两个人

[Editor's note updated 12/20/11— It is not necessary to have "right wing" views to gain understanding from this video presentation. Many forms of social programs are helpful, and they are a reality of the current political system in the United States. It certainly would not be beneficial and in many cases it would be disastrous to abruptly halt government assistance that people have become acclimated to. It is important to realize that the current economic depression of the United States and the rest of the world is being intentionally created by the Global Elite for their purpose of incrementally increasing and solidifying their control over the world's population. (See the audio interview Alex Jones speaks with George Humphrey, April 2, 2009). Many people are unaware of the real history and genocidal agendas of the Global Elite, being fooled by the well-crafted facade which has been created through their control of politics and the media (See the article A Summary of the Documentary Video ”Behind the Big News”).]

— When the Revolutionary war had been won in 1783, the governmental system of the States at that time was weak and did not have power to settle disputes or the power to tax for the proper needs such as national defense, so in 1787 delegates from twelve of the thirteen States met in Philadelphia to revise the system, and they created an entirely new structure known as the Constitution of the United States.
--- 当革命战争在1783年获胜时,当时的国家政府体制薄弱,没有力量解决争端或为国防等适当需求征税,所以1787年,来自十三个州的十二个代表团在费城会晤以修改该制度,他们创造了一个全新的结构,称为美国宪法。

— The Constitution was written to govern the government, not the people or the States— with each of the States assumed to be a ”jealous guardian” or it’s own sovereignty. The Founders created a central government with strictly limited powers which left the States free to compete with one another to be the ”best” state in their offering the least amount of taxation and control of their people.
--- “宪法”的编写是为了管理政府,而不是人民或各州 --- 每个州都被认为是“嫉妒的监护人”或自己的主权。创始人创建了一个拥有严格限制权力的中央政府,这使得各州可以自由地相互竞争,以成为他们提供最少税收和对人民的控制的“最佳”州。

— In an effort to persuade Americans to adopt the new system of government, essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay were collected into a body known as the Federalist Papers.
--- 为了说服美国人采用新的政府制度,詹姆斯麦迪逊,亚历山大汉密尔顿和约翰杰伊撰写的文章被收集到一个称为联邦党人文件的机构中

— The first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights, which should actaully be known as the ”Bill of Limitations on Government,” because they never gave citizens any rights but rather limited the government's power in order to safeguard the God-given rights of the citizens. The Founders insisted that Congress shall make no law about speech, religion, the press, the right to assembly, the right to petition, and the right to bear arms— all of which are directed at the government rather than the individuals and the States. The amendments of the Bill of Rights all start with the phrase ”Congress shall not.. ,” except for the tenth Amendment which says in effect ”if we forgot anything, Congress can’t do that either.”
--- 宪法的前十项修正案被称为权利法案,它应该被称为“政府限制法案”,因为它们从未赋予公民任何权利,而是限制政府的权力以保护上帝给予公民的权利。 创始人坚持认为,国会不应就言论,宗教,新闻,集会权,请愿权和携带武器的权利制定任何法律 - 所有这些都针对的是政府而不是个人和国家。 “权利法案”的修正案都以“国会不得......”这一短语开头,但第十条修正案除外,该修正案实际上说“如果我们忘了什么,国会也不能这样做”。

— Many people think that the system of government in America is a ”democracy,” however it is actually a ”republic” and knowing the difference between these two types of governments is essential in understanding the American system, as is described here in the following points.
--- 许多人认为美国的政府体制是“民主”,但它实际上是一个“共和国”,了解这两种政府之间的区别对于理解美国体制至关重要,如下文所述其中的要点。

— Many people have misconceptions about how to ”categorize” the varying types of governments. For example, many people think that Communism is on the ”far left,” Fascism and dictators are on the ”far right,” and moderate systems such as in America are in the ”center.” However, the truth is that Fascism is on the ”far left” of the spectrum rather than the ”far right.” A more accurate representation of the spectrum would show government having zero power at the far right, and having 100% power on the far left. ( such as Communism, Socialism, Nazism, Fascism, dictators, Kings, ect.. ) At the middle of the graph is represented by systems such as the United States Constitutional government which protects the rights of it’s people, known as Constitutional Moderate.
--- 许多人对如何“分类”不同类型的政府存在误解。例如,许多人认为共产主义处于“最左边”,法西斯主义和独裁者处于“极右翼”,美国等温和体系处于“中心”。然而,事实是,法西斯主义在于频谱的“最左边”而不是“最右边”。频谱的更准确表示将表明政府在最右边拥有零权力,并且在最左边拥有100%的权力。 (例如共产主义,社会主义,纳粹主义,法西斯主义,独裁者,国王等等。)图表的中间部分由美国宪法政府等系统代表,该政府保护其人民的权利,称为宪法适度

— The basic forms of government are: monarchy which is a dictatorship ruled by one,— oligarchy which is rule by a few, democracy which is rule by majority, republic which is rule by law, and anarchy which is rule by nobody. Following are points made about each form of government:
--- 政府的基本形式是:君主制是由一个人统治的独裁统治,由少数人统治的寡头统治,由多数统治的民主,依法治国的共和国,以及无人统治的无政府状态。 以下是关于每种政府形式的观点:

Monarchy or dictatorship means ”rule by one,” which does not exist in the practical sense, but rather it is always a group that puts one of it’s members up front. A King has a council of Nobles or Earls, and dictators have their bureaucrats or commissars— therefore monarchy actually means ”rule by a group.” So actually, monarchies or dictatorships are always actually ”Oligarchies,” which are covered in the next point.
君主制或独裁统治意味着“一个人统治”,这在实际意义上并不存在,而是始终是一个将其中一个成员放在前面的群体。 国王有贵族或伯爵委员会,独裁者有官僚或政委 - 因此君主制实际上意味着“由一个群体统治。”因此,实际上,君主制或独裁统治实际上都是“寡头制”,下一点将对此进行讨论。

Oligarchy means ”rule by a group,” which is how most of the nations of the world are governed today and throughout history. Most of the nations of the world are ruled only by a powerful few.
寡头统治意味着“由一个群体统治”,这就是世界上大多数国家今天和整个历史都是如此统治的。 世界上大多数国家只有少数人才能统治

Anarchy means ”without government.” At times in the past, some people have concluded that many of man’s worse crimes were committed by governments, so they decided that having no government might be a good idea, but this is a mistaken view— as the ancient Greeks stated: ”Without law, there can be no freedom,” and the Founding Fathers agreed, knowing that some laws would be necessary to protect a civilized society. In a state of Anarchy, everyone needs to constantly guard life, liberty, and property, and the lives of family members. Also everyone needs to be armed and movement is restricted due to property needing to be protected at all times, therefore a proper amount of government makes everyone freer. People living in such chaos often go to those best able to put an end to it and beg them to take control to restore order, but usually the people who are best able to put an end to the chaos are the very people who started it, therefore those anarchists will eventually form an oligarchy— this is exactly what happened in Russia leading to Lenin taking total power, and in Germany were Hitler’s brownshirts created the chaos needed to put him into power. Anarchy exists only as a temporary transition from something that exists to something desired by the power hungry.

无政府状态意味着“没有政府”。过去有时人们得出的结论是,许多人犯下的罪行都是由政府犯下的,所以他们认为没有政府可能是个好主意,但这是错误的看法 --- 因为古希腊人说:“没有法律,就没有自由”,开国元勋同意这一点,知道有些法律对于保护文明社会是必要的。在无政府状态下,每个人都需要不断保护生命,自由,财产以及家庭成员的生活。每个人都需要武装起来,并且由于需要随时保护财产而限制行动,因此适量的政府使每个人都更自由。生活在这种混乱中的人往往会找到最能够制止它并乞求他们控制以恢复秩序的人,但通常最能结束混乱的人就是那些创造这些混乱的人,因此,那些无政府主义者最终将形成一个寡头政治 --- 这正是俄罗斯发生的导致列宁夺取全部权力的事情,在德国,希特勒的冲锋队制造混乱以造成了让他掌权的必要性。无政府状态只是一个从现存状态到权力饥饿者所想要的状态的临时过渡而已

The word ”Democracy” comes from two words: Demos meaning ”people,” and Kratin meaning ”to rule,” therefore democracy means ”Majority Rule.” Majority rule may sound like a good idea, but essentially it actually translates to mean ”mob rule.” The flaw of Democracy is that the majority is not ”restrained”— meaning if more than half of the people can be persuaded to want something in a democracy, that whim will rule.
“民主”一词来自两个词:Demos意为“人”,而Kratin意为“统治”,因此民主意味着“多数规则”。多数规则可能听起来像一个好主意,但实质上它实际上意味着“暴徒”。 “民主的缺陷在于,大多数人并非”克制“ - 这意味着如果超过一半的人能够被说服在民主中想要某些东西,这种想法会随之而来。

The word ”Republic” comes from two words: Res meaning ”thing,” and Publica meaning ”public,” therefore Republic means ”the public thing,” or ”the law.” A true republic is one where the government is limited by law, leaving the people alone. America’s founders had a clean slate to write on, so rather than setting up an oligarchy, they set up the rule of law in a republic. An example is shown of a setting in the "old west" where a lynch mob captures a suspected criminal, and instead of hanging him even though the majority votes for it, he is given a trial due to ”the rule of law” in a republic instead of in a democracy.

— Many people would be surprised to know that the word ”democracy” does not appear in the Declaration of Independence or in the U.S. Constitution, nor does it appear in any of the Constitutions of the 50 States, and in fact the founders did everything they could to keep the United States from having a ”democracy.” James Madison wrote in the Federalist Papers: ”... democracies have ever been spectacles of turbulence and contention; have ever been found incompatible with personal security or the rights or property, and have in general been as short in their lives as they have been violent in their deaths.”
--- 许多人会惊讶地发现“民主”这个词并没有出现在“独立宣言”或美国宪法中,也没有出现在50个州的任何宪法中,实际上创始人做了他们所能做的一切,使美国无法拥有”民主“。 詹姆斯·麦迪逊在“联邦党人文集”中写道:“......民主国家曾经是动荡和争论的焦点,他们被发现与人身安全或权利或财产不相容,而且他们的生活一般都像他们在死亡时一样暴力。“

— Alexander Hamilton Stated, ”We are a republican government. Real liberty is never found in despotism or in the extremes of democracy.”
--- 亚历山大·汉密尔顿说:“我们是共和政府。 真正的自由从来没有在专制或极端的民主中找到。“

— Samuel Adams stated: ”Democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself.”
--- 塞缪尔亚当斯说:“民主永远不会持续很长时间。 它很快就会被自己浪费,耗尽和谋杀掉。“

— The Founding Fathers had good reason to think of democracy with contempt, due to their knowledge of history of democracy in the early Greek city-states which produced some of the wildest excesses of government imaginable— in every case ending up with mob rule leading to anarchy and finally tyranny under an oligarchy. During that period in Greece, there was a man named Solan who urged creation of a fixed body of laws which are not subject to majority whims, however the Greeks never adopted his ideas.
--- 开国元勋有充分的理由鄙视民主,因为他们了解早期希腊城邦的民主历史,这些城市产生了一些政府可以想象的最疯狂的过度行为 --- 在每种情况下都以暴民统治导致 无政府状态,最后是寡头统治下的暴政。 在希腊的那个时期,有一个名叫索兰的人,他敦促建立一个不受多数意愿影响的固定法律体系,但希腊人从未采纳过他的想法。

— The Romans did adopt Solan’s ideas and created the twelve tables of the Roman Law and built a Republic that limited Government power and left the people alone. Since government was limited, the people were free to produce, with the understanding that they could keep the fruits of their labor, and in time Rome became wealthy and the envy of the world.
--- 罗马人确实采用了索兰的思想,并创建了罗马法的十二个表,并建立了一个限制政府权力并让人民分离的共和国。 由于政府是有限的,人们可以自由地生产,他们知道他们可以保留他们的劳动成果,并且随着时间罗马变得富裕和得到世界羡慕

— Eventually the people of Rome forgot that the essence of freedom is the proper limitation of government and that when government power grows, people’s freedom recedes. Power seeking politicians began to exceed the powers granted them in the Roman Constitution, such as by using government power to take property from some and give it to others through agriculture subsidies followed by housing and welfare programs. As government power continued to expand, the private sector was increasingly taxed which led to productivity declining, then shortages developing, followed by mobs of people roaming the streets demanding bread and services from the government, with many induced to trade freedom for security. Eventually the whole system can crashing down, and Rome went from a republic to a democracy to an oligarchy under a progression of the Caesars.
--- 最终罗马人忘记了自由的本质是政府的适当限制,当政府权力增长时,人们的自由就会消退。 寻求权力的政治家开始超越罗马宪法赋予他们的权力,例如利用政府权力从一些人手中夺取财产,并通过农业补贴,然后通过住房和福利计划将财产给予他人。 随着政府权力的不断扩大,私营部门的税收越来越高,导致生产力下降,然后出现短缺,随后是街头漫游人群,要求政府提供面包和服务,许多人为了安全而引发贸易自由。 最终,整个体系都崩溃了,罗马从一个共和国变成了一个民主国家,最后在凯撒的促进下变成了寡头统治体系。

— Benjamin Franklin once said, ”We can keep a republic, or we will eventually end up with an oligarchy— a tyranny of the elite.”
--- 本杰明富兰克林曾经说过,“我们会保持一个共和国,否则我们最终将沦为一个寡头集团 - 一个精英的暴政。”

Overview of America— Part 2 of 2: The Proper View of Capitalism

view individual page  |   view in popup windowRunning Time: 11 minutes  

This video clip from the documentary video ”Overview of America” explains differences between the major economic systems of free market Capitalism, Fascism, Naziism, Socialism, and Communism. It is explained that all types of economic systems include elements of ”capital” and ”property,” with differences between the systems being varying combinations of types of ownership and control of those two elements.

Following is a description of points made in the video clip:

— Most people are confused about the characteristics of major differing economic systems. During the 20th century, Americans were led to believe that a "great struggle" existed between the Capitalist and Communist worlds, but most people do not know what the defining principals of the systems are.

— One of the most basic aspects of any economic system is the concept of ”capital,” which means ”the means of production.” An example of capital is explained as a spear being made as the result of someone’s time and energy in order for that person to eventually be able to use to spear to catch fish to eat. Capital can be tools, machinery, and even people.

— By strict definition, every type of economic system is ”capitalist,” including Communism. The difference between Communism and the American Capitalist type of systems lies in the ownership of the capital. Communist capital is ”monopolistic and state controlled,” and American capital is ”competitive free enterprise.”

— The term ”free market” means a self regulating system in which all parties are completely free to transact with one another, and where force, fraud or injury damages one party, the government’s role is only to punish those who commit such offenses and to vindicate the rights of the other party, which protects the integrity of the free market.

— ”Private Property” means private ownership and control of property being a key component in the free enterprise system. In order for ownership of private property to be complete, four aspects must be met— the person’s right for Title, Control, Use, and the Ability to Dispose. In a free market economy these aspects are unrestrained, as long as the person does not infringe on the rights of others. True ownership of property and freedom go hand in hand.

— Some basic differences exist between the two major types of economic systems. In the competitive free enterprise system, capital or property is both owned privately and controlled privately. In a monopolistic system, holding title to capital can be accomplished privately or by the state, however, the capital is controlled by the state or the elite few who control the state.

— The Communist Manifesto, which contains the basic program for all Communist and Socialists, explicitly preaches the destruction and abolition of private property. Karl Marx understood the power of controlling capital as have all Communists who have ever looked and still look to Marx as their leader. State controlled capitalism (Communism) always results in high prices and low quality, because the lack of competition offers no incentive to improve.

— On the other hand, hard working competitive free enterprise producers create low prices and high quality. Competition results in excellence, and always has.

— The various economic systems can be plotted along a spectrum representing amounts of government control in the market. The last century has seen four forms of state controlled economies on the far left of the spectrum: Fascism, Nazism, Socialism, and Communism. In each, the government controls the capital, with the difference among these being how much is owned outright by the government. Following are aspects of each:

In a Fascist system, the government does not own businesses on paper, but it does control them. In Mussolini’s Italy, even though he didn’t hold title to businesses, he told the owners what to produce, how much to produce, when to produce, where to buy raw materials, who to hire, who to fire, and what prices to charge. The rest ”was up to them.” The fascist system is more efficient than other state controlled systems due to those living under it thinking they still own their businesses. Such a government controls the owners through an array of taxations and regulations.

Under Nazism, which means ”national socialism,” it’s proponents went one step further and acquired ownership of some corporations such as Volkswagen, but Hitler did not seize ownership of other industrial giants but rather just controlled them in the same way that Mussolini had controlled businesses in Italy.

Socialism is where government officials aquire possession of major industries, such as transportation, communications, and utilities, which allows for government to leverage control over the entire economy. Through ownership of these vital segments of the industry, and by creating government regulatory agencies, socialists gain control over virtually everything else.

Communism is the ”granddaddy of all” in the economic sense. Under this system all of the capital is owned and controlled by the State.

— Two major types of configurations of goverment and economy types would be an Oligarchy with a monopolistic, state controlled economy, and a Republic with a competitive, free enterprise system economy. [Note that the practical application of the Government and economy in the United States has been gradually shifting to the left on the spectrum from being a free enterprise Republic. See the article A Summary of the Booklet ”Restoring the Rights of the States and the People”.]

— The founding fathers knew that the system of a free market economy in a Republic which they designed would not last without without a certain degree of shared morality in the citizenry. James Madison cautioned, ”limited government alone is inadequate for our nation,” and John Adams said ”Our Constitution was made only for a moral and religious people, it is wholly inadequate to the government of any other.” George Washington said ”.. reason and experience both forbid us to expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious principle.” Benjamin Franklin said ”Only a virtuous people are capable of freedom.. As nations become corrupt and vicious, they have more need of masters.”

— The alternative to Americanism is what has condemned most of the human race to live as slaves throughout the past millennium— with the ideas that rights are privileges dispensed by an Oligarchy, the nation’s capital and all economic activity being directed from a central power, morality being inconsequential, and security needing to be preferred over freedom and opportunity.

— It is explained that the United States continues to be steered off-course through the principals that led to it’s greatness being cast aside, and what is needed is a sufficient number of Americans getting involved to return the nation to having less government and more personal responsibility of citizens.









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